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關於2020年中央和地方預算執行情況與2021年中央和地方預算草案的報告(1)(中英對照)

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REPORT ON THE EXECUTION OF THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL BUDGETS FOR 2020 AND ON THE DRAFT CENTRAL AND LOCAL BUDGETS FOR 2021

關於2020年中央和地方預算執行情況與2021年中央和地方預算草案的報告

Fourth Session of the 13th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China March 5, 2021

——2021年3月5日在第十三屆全國人民代表大會第四次會議上

Ministry of Finance

財政部

Esteemed Deputies,

各位代表:

The Ministry of Finance has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the execution of the central and local budgets for 2020 and on the draft central and local budgets for 2021 to the present Fourth Session of the 13th National People's Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

受國務院委託,現將2020年中央和地方預算執行情況與2021年中央和地方預算草案提請十三屆全國人大四次會議審查,並請全國政協各位委員提出意見。

I. Execution of the 2020 Central and Local Budgets

一、2020年中央和地方預算執行情況

The year 2020 was an extraordinarily unusual year in the history of the People's Republic of China. We were confronted with a challenging and complex international environment, arduous tasks in domestic reform, development, and stability, and the serious impacts of the Covid-19 epidemic. Amid these circumstances, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core exercised overall control, maintained strategic resolve, accurately assessed the situation, created meticulous plans, adopted decisive measures, put in arduous effort, and promptly made major decisions for coordinating epidemic control with economic and social development. All regions and departments resolutely followed the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, fully applied the guiding principles of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second, third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee, and fulfilled the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee and the State Council. Responding to challenges and risks with calm composure and upholding high-quality development with firm resolve, we rigorously implemented the budgets reviewed and approved by the Third Session of the 13th NPC. We coordinated epidemic response with economic and social development, successfully ensured stability on six fronts, and maintained security in six areas. With quarter-on-quarter improvement, our economy gradually returned to normal, making China the world's only major economy to achieve growth in 2020. We attained a complete victory in the fight against poverty, and we scored decisive achievements in securing a full victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Overall, we have performed in a manner worthy of the history books, earning the approval of our people and capturing worldwide attention.

2020年是新中國歷史上極不平凡的一年。面對嚴峻複雜的國際形勢、艱鉅繁重的國內改革發展穩定任務特別是新冠肺炎疫情的嚴重衝擊,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央統攬全局,保持戰略定力,準確判斷形勢,精心謀劃部署,果斷採取行動,付出艱苦努力,及時作出統籌疫情防控和經濟社會發展的重大決策。各地區各部門堅持以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想為指導,全面貫徹黨的十九大和十九屆二中、三中、四中、五中全會精神,按照黨中央、國務院決策部署,沉着冷靜應對風險挑戰,堅持高質量發展方向不動搖,嚴格執行十三屆全國人大三次會議審查批准的預算,統籌疫情防控和經濟社會發展,紮實做好“六穩”工作、全面落實“六保”任務,我國經濟運行逐季改善、逐步恢復常態,在全球主要經濟體中唯一實現經濟正增長,脱貧攻堅戰取得全面勝利,決勝全面建成小康社會取得決定性成就,交出一份人民滿意、世界矚目、可以載入史冊的答卷。

Looking back on the past year, it is apparent that the Covid-19 epidemic brought difficulties and challenges to fiscal operations on a level that has not been seen for many years. In the first quarter, national fiscal revenue fell by 14.3% year-on-year due to the outbreak and spread of the virus, the first instance of negative growth since 2009. In February and March alone, revenue fell by 21.4% and 26.1% respectively, with 30 out of 31 provincial-level units seeing negative growth of fiscal revenue that led to glaring imbalances between government revenue and expenditure and particular difficulties in fiscal operations for local governments. Facing this grave state of affairs, finance departments resolutely carried out the requirements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council on pursuing a more proactive and impactful fiscal policy. While making every effort to ensure spending in key areas, we took prompt action to adjust and improve the budget and strengthen counter-cyclical regulation, established a mechanism for ensuring that new fiscal funds are directly allocated to primary-level governments, and leveraged opportunities to increase revenue and cut spending, thus keeping the budget balanced and fiscal operations stable. Through arduous efforts, and as the epidemic situation improved and the economy gradually recovered, fiscal operations picked up each quarter. Revenue bounced back in the second quarter with the size of the drop shrinking to 7.4%, went from negative to positive in the third quarter with an increase of 4.7%, and continued to improve in the fourth quarter with an increase of 5.5%. Consequently, budgetary targets for the year as a whole were largely met. Execution of both central and local budgets was satisfactory.

回顧過去一年,新冠肺炎疫情給財政運行帶來的困難和挑戰多年未有。一季度受疫情暴發蔓延影響,全國財政收入同比下降14.3%,為2009年以來首次負增長,其中2月份下降21.4%、3月份下降26.1%,31個省份中有30個收入負增長,收支矛盾異常突出,地方財政運轉尤為困難。嚴峻形勢面前,財政部門堅決貫徹落實黨中央、國務院關於積極的財政政策要更加積極有為的要求,在全力保障重點領域支出的同時,及時調整完善預算收支安排,加大逆週期調節力度,建立新增財政資金直達機制,挖掘增收節支潛力,保持預算平衡和財政穩定運行。經過艱苦努力,隨着疫情防控形勢好轉和經濟逐步恢復,財政運行情況逐季向好,二季度收入觸底回升、降幅收窄至7.4%,三季度由負轉正、增長4.7%,四季度持續向好、增長5.5%,全年預算目標基本實現。中央和地方預算執行情況較好。

Revenue and expenditure in the general public budget in 2020

(一)2020年一般公共預算收支情況。

1) National general public budget

1.全國一般公共預算。

Revenue in the national general public budget was 18.289492 trillion yuan, representing 101.5% of the budgeted figure, a decrease of 3.9% compared with 2019.

全國一般公共預算收入182894.92億元,為預算的101.5%,比2019年下降3.9%。

Revenue included tax receipts of 15.431006 trillion yuan, a decrease of 2.3%, and non-tax revenue of 2.858486 trillion yuan, a decrease of 11.7%. Adding in 2.613332 trillion yuan of funds from other sources and utilized carryover and surplus funds (this includes funds transferred from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund and local budget stabilization funds, the budgets of central and local government-managed funds, and the budgets of central and local government state capital operations, as well as carryover and surplus funds used by local governments), total revenue came to 20.902824 trillion yuan.

其中,税收收入154310.06億元,下降2.3%;非税收入28584.86億元,下降11.7%。加上調入資金及使用結轉結餘26133.32億元(包括中央和地方財政從預算穩定調節基金、政府性基金預算、國有資本經營預算調入資金,以及地方財政使用結轉結餘資金),收入總量為209028.24億元。

Expenditure in the national general public budget was 24.558803 trillion yuan, representing 99.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 2.8%. With the addition of 104.021 billion yuan used to replenish the Central Budget Stabilization Fund, total expenditure rose to 24.662824 trillion yuan. Total expenditure exceeded total revenue, leaving a deficit of 3.76 trillion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

全國一般公共預算支出245588.03億元,完成預算的99.1%,增長2.8%。加上補充中央預算穩定調節基金1040.21億元,支出總量為246628.24億元。收支總量相抵,赤字37600億元,與預算持平。

2) Central general public budget

2.中央一般公共預算。

Revenue in the central government's general public budget was 8.277108 trillion yuan, representing 100% of the budgeted figure and a decrease of 7.3%. Adding in the transfer of 530 billion yuan from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund and 358 billion yuan from the budgets of central government-managed funds and central government state capital operations, total revenue came to 9.165108 trillion yuan.

中央一般公共預算收入82771.08億元,為預算的100%,下降7.3%。加上從中央預算穩定調節基金調入5300億元,從中央政府性基金預算、中央國有資本經營預算調入3580億元,收入總量為91651.08億元。

Expenditure in the central government's general public budget totaled 11.841087 trillion yuan, representing 99.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 8.2%. This figure includes: central government expenditures of 3.509557 trillion yuan, representing 100.2% of the budgeted figure (mainly due to increased interest payments on government bonds) and a 0.1% decrease; and transfer payments to local governments of 8.33153 trillion yuan, representing 99.3% of the budgeted figure and a 12% increase. With the addition of 104.021 billion yuan contributed to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund, total expenditure reached 11.945108 trillion yuan. Total expenditure exceeded total revenue, leaving a deficit of 2.78 trillion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

中央一般公共預算支出118410.87億元,完成預算的99.1%,增長8.2%,其中,本級支出35095.57億元,完成預算的100.2%(主要是國債付息支出增加),下降0.1%;對地方轉移支付83315.3億元,完成預算的99.3%,增長12%。加上補充中央預算穩定調節基金1040.21億元,支出總量為119451.08億元。收支總量相抵,中央財政赤字27800億元,與預算持平。

Main revenue items in the central government's general public budget: Domestic value-added tax (VAT) revenue was 2.835298 trillion yuan, 98.8% of the budgeted figure. Domestic excise tax revenue amounted to 1.20281 trillion yuan, 96.1% of the budgeted figure. Revenue from VAT and excise tax on imports totaled 1.453463 trillion yuan, 109.2% of the budgeted figure. Revenue from customs duties came to 256.42 billion yuan, 93.2% of the budgeted figure. Corporate income tax revenue was 2.325757 trillion yuan, 98.3% of the budgeted figure. Individual income tax revenue was 694.091 billion yuan, 109.3% of the budgeted figure. VAT and excise tax rebates on exports totaled 1.362898 trillion yuan, 112.3% of the budgeted figure.

中央一般公共預算主要收入項目具體情況是:國內增值税28352.98億元,為預算的98.8%。國內消費税12028.1億元,為預算的96.1%。進口貨物增值税、消費税14534.63億元,為預算的109.2%。關税2564.2億元,為預算的93.2%。企業所得税23257.57億元,為預算的98.3%。個人所得税6940.91億元,為預算的109.3%。出口貨物退增值税、消費税13628.98億元,為預算的112.3%。

Main expenditures in the central government's general public budget: General public service expenditures reached 173.521 billion yuan, 100.8% of the budgeted figure, primarily due to increased spending on customs countermeasures for Covid-19. Diplomatic spending totaled 51.406 billion yuan, 94.7% of the budgeted figure. National defense spending was 1.267992 trillion yuan, 100% of the budgeted figure.

中央一般公共預算本級主要支出項目具體情況是:一般公共服務支出1735.21億元,完成預算的100.8%,主要是海關防控新冠肺炎疫情經費增加。外交支出514.06億元,完成預算的94.7%。國防支出12679.92億元,完成預算的100%。

Public security expenses totaled 183.59 billion yuan, 100.2% of the budgeted figure. Spending on education came to 167.365 billion yuan, 98.5% of the budgeted figure. Spending on science and technology amounted to 321.648 billion yuan, 100.6% of the budgeted figure. Spending on stockpiling grain, edible oils, and other materials was 122.457 billion yuan, 100.7% of the budgeted figure. Interest payments on debt totaled 553.895 billion yuan, 102.6% of the budgeted figure.

公共安全支出1835.9億元,完成預算的100.2%。教育支出1673.65億元,完成預算的98.5%。科學技術支出3216.48億元,完成預算的100.6%。糧油物資儲備支出1224.57億元,完成預算的100.7%。債務付息支出5538.95億元,完成預算的102.6%。

Central government transfer payments made to local governments: General transfer payments totaled 6.955723 trillion yuan, 99.2% of the budgeted figure. This figure includes transfer payments for shared fiscal powers of 3.218072 trillion yuan, 98.7% of the budgeted figure. Special transfer payments reached 776.592 billion yuan, 100.1% of the budgeted figure, primarily due to increased spending allocated from the proceeds of inter-provincial land quota adjustments on the basis of practical arrangements. Special-channel transfer payments totaled 599.215 billion yuan, 99% of the budgeted figure.

中央對地方轉移支付具體情況是:一般性轉移支付69557.23億元,完成預算的99.2%,其中,共同財政事權轉移支付32180.72億元,完成預算的98.7%;專項轉移支付7765.92億元,完成預算的100.1%,主要是據實安排的土地指標跨省域調劑收入安排的支出增加;特殊轉移支付5992.15億元,完成預算的99%。

In 2020, a total of 104.021 billion yuan of extra revenue and unspent funds in the central general public budget was transferred in full to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. Central government reserve funds budgeted for 2020 amounted to 50 billion yuan. Of this, actual spending was 14.641 billion yuan, which was mainly used in post-flood reconstruction and other areas. The 35.359-billion-yuan surplus (already included in the aforementioned 104.021 billion yuan of surplus funds) was transferred in full to the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. At the end of 2020, the Central Budget Stabilization Fund had a balance of 113.131 billion yuan.

2020年中央一般公共預算超收收入和支出結餘1040.21億元,全部轉入中央預算穩定調節基金。中央預備費預算500億元,實際支出146.41億元,主要用於洪澇災害災後恢復重建等方面,剩餘353.59億元(已包含在上述結餘1040.21億元中)全部轉入中央預算穩定調節基金。2020年末,中央預算穩定調節基金餘額1131.31億元。

3) Local general public budget

3.地方一般公共預算。

Revenue in the local general public budget was 18.343914 trillion yuan. This figure includes 10.012384 trillion yuan in local government revenue, a decrease of 0.9% compared with 2019, and 8.33153 trillion yuan in transfer payments from the central government. With the addition of 1.725332 trillion yuan of funds transferred from local budget stabilization funds, local government-managed funds, and the local state capital operations budget as well as utilized carryover and surplus funds, total revenue reached 20.069246 trillion yuan. Expenditures in the local general public budget totaled 21.049246 trillion yuan, a 3.3% increase. Total expenditure exceeded total revenue, creating a local government deficit of 980 billion yuan, which is consistent with the figure projected.

地方一般公共預算收入183439.14億元,其中,本級收入100123.84億元,下降0.9%;中央對地方轉移支付收入83315.3億元。加上從地方預算穩定調節基金、政府性基金預算、國有資本經營預算調入資金及使用結轉結餘17253.32億元,收入總量為200692.46億元。地方一般公共預算支出210492.46億元,增長3.3%。收支總量相抵,地方財政赤字9800億元,與預算持平。

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guidance ['gaidəns]

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n. 引導,指導

 
decisive [di'saisiv]

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adj. 決定性的

 
execution [.eksi'kju:ʃən]

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n. 執行,實施,處決
n. 技巧,表演

 
diplomatic [.diplə'mætik]

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adj. 外交的,古字體的,老練的

 
expenditure [iks'penditʃə]

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n. (時間、勞力、金錢等)支出,使用,消耗

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arduous ['ɑ:djuəs]

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adj. 費力的,辛勤的,險峻的

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stabilization [,steibilai'zeiʃən, -li-]

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n. 穩定;穩定化

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stability [stə'biliti]

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n. 穩定性,居於修道院

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poverty ['pɔvəti]

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n. 貧困,貧乏

 
social ['səuʃəl]

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